Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Indigenous Australians experience a much lower life-expectancy than the national average, and are substantially more prone to developing diseases and long-term disability leading to a reduced quality of life. One of the most significant contributors to the ATSI populationÃ¢â¬â¢s health and wellbeing is their geographical location, in particular, looking at their access to health services and adequate nutrition. Access to Health Services/Facilities Access to health services and facilities is one of the largest influences on the health status of the ATSI population. Access to health services is concerned with allowing all individuals the opportunity to obtain and use appropriate heath care resources in order to improve and/or maintain their health. There is a large range of health services delivered to Australians through various streams including; public health services (preventative care Ã¢â¬â screenings and immunisations), primary and community health care (GPÃ¢â¬â¢s, ambulance, community health services), hospital care (public/private, psychiatric, nursing) and specialised health services (specialist medical practitioners, drug/alcohol treatment, mental health, etc.). Access can be measured by monitoring the use of health care services and facilities, through epidemiology, and through other measures such as waiting times for treatment, bed availability, etc. Indigenous Australians living in rural and remote geographical locations account for approximately 25% of the ATSI populationShow MoreRelatedWhat Does It Mean For The Health Of A Nation? Essay1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAustralians have one of the highest life expectancies in the world, but does this mean we are healthy? What does it mean to measure the health of a nation? And can we say, with such a diverse population, that we are doing better or worse across the board? Death rates continue to drop in Australia, and not only are people living longer, but they are living with more years free of disability. We have access to increasingly innovative and sophisticated health care, including improved detection, diagnosisRead MoreMarxism and Health Care1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesemployed in regards to health can be further explored through the analysis of fundamental Marxist ideologies. The fundamental basis of Marxist theology has strong links to health as it is concerned with the distinction between the upper class and the lower class. In particular Marxism explores the working classes inability to exercise adequate control over the determinants of health. Through extensive analysis of MarxismÃ¢â¬â¢s various theories regarding health it becomes highly evident that when used asRead MorePrior To European Invasion And Settlement, Aboriginal Australians1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrior to European invasion and settlement, Aboriginal Australians enjoyed a non-sedentary lifestyle that concentrated upon maintaining and sustaining their country, relationships and ecosystems. Anderson et al (2006 ) state that Ã¢â¬ËPrecontact health care systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ were focused upon the inter-relationships of land, people, the living and non-living entities and creator beings. If the land was not cared for, it got sick, and so would all other beings related to the land, including the people (AndersonRead MoreThe Inequalities Surrounding Indigenous Health2028 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Inequalities Surrounding Australian Indigenous Health Inequality in health is one of the most controversial topics within Australian Health Care. Inequality in relation to health is defined as being Ã¢â¬Å"differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groupsÃ¢â¬ (World Health Organization, 2012). Within Australia inequality affects a wide range of population groups; however Indigenous Australians are most widely affected therefore this paperRead MoreEssay about Indigenous Health1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The status of Indigenous health in contemporary Australia is a result of historic factors as well as contemporary socio-economic issuesÃ¢â¬ (Hampton Toombs, 2013, p. 1). The poor health position of Indigenous Australians is a contemporary reflection of their historical treatment as AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional owners. This treatment has led to Indigenous Australians experiencing social disadvantages, significantly low socio-economic status, dispossession, poverty and powerlessness as a direct resultRead MoreHealth And Indigenous Australian Peoples Essay2350 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesSOUTHERN CROSS UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Student: Anushia Bentley Student ID No.: 22413376 Unit Name: Health and Indigenous Australian Peoples Unit Code: CUL0048-2016-2 TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s name: Liz Rix Assignment No.: 3 Assignment Title: Bentley Anushia 22413376 assignment 3 Essay Due date: 15th September 2016 (extension approved) Declaration: I have read and understand the Rules Relating to Awards (Rule 3 Section 18 Ã¢â¬â Academic Misconduct Including Plagiarism) as contained in the SCU Policy LibraryRead MoreThe Indigenous Populations of Australia2028 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Indigenous Populations of Australia In recent years, there has been an apparent growth of the Indigenous population of Australia driven, in part, by an increasing willingness on the part of many Australians to acknowledge/assert their Aboriginality (ABS, 2003). As at 30 June 2001, the AboriginalRead MoreAustalian Indigenous People and Their Traditional Medicines Essay2750 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesFor thousands of years Indigenous peoples have been the guardians of our environment and its medicines. Their knowledge has been built on a holistic communal view of humanity, society, health and its links to the ecosystem. Sadly enough widely reported evidence shows that they are among the most marginalised and disadvantaged people within many nations. Often their environment was destroyed, land appropriated and they have the worst health indicators(1). The World Health Organisation argues thatRead MoreThe Psychological Impact Of Prejudice And Discrimination Towards Indigenous Australians Essay1823 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesClosing the gap refers to a formal commitment by the Australian government to address Indigenous disadvantage. In comparison to Non-Indigenous Australians; Indigenous Australians face significant diff erences like poorer health, lower levels of education and employment. The goal of this paper is to describe and explain the psychological impact of prejudice and discrimination towards Indigenous Australians, to describe and explain the role of self-fulfilling prophecy in the perpetuation of negativeRead MoreWhy Culturally Safe Nursing Practice2161 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesbetween Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations (AIHW, 2014). This paper will examine why culturally safe nursing practice, through cultural competence, is a key strategy for reducing inequalities in access to healthcare. This paper will additionally define what is meant by cultural competency, and how culturally competent nursing practice is significant and beneficial to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) populations. In Australia, minority populations such as Indigenous Australians
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Problem Statement In recent times, racist activities have been prevalent in American communities which is a long standing issue between blacks and whites especially in colleges and the society at large. A freshman at ETSU counter protested along with the black racial group in a provocative way to showcase the depth of the tussle between blacks and whites in the USA. Problem Statement Description Racism and ethnic diversity has been Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ tradition towards the blacks and other racial groups since the early 1620Ã¢â¬â¢s up till date (John, 2016). With the recent incident at ETSU, it indicates a long trend of struggle about blacks being not generally accepted by the whites. The recent hate speech and racially charged taunting that happened at ETSU was a contribution of management problem and organizational problem. Considering the magnitude of different racial groups(students) at ETSU with respect to racism rate in America, ETSU management should have implemented proactive measure rather than reactive measures to discourage racism within the university. The management made a simple decision by expelling Tristan Rettke out of the university and never will he be enrolled in the future. Such steps indicate that the institution respects everyone irrespective of color and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no preference in dealing with individuals. Factors either from management, technology or organizational that contributed to this problem which shall be discussed briefly below. Management Factor One ofShow MoreRelatedA Brief Note On Racial And Ethnic Inequality1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesElizabeth Rubio Professor Alvarez Sociology 180 March 16, 2016 Racial and Ethnic Inequality What is racial and ethnic inequality? To understand racial and ethnic inequality you must understand what is considered race and what is considered ethnicity. According to our textbook, Ã¢â¬Å"Race can be defined as a group or population that shares a set of genetic characteristics and physical featuresÃ¢â¬ meanwhile ethnic groups Ã¢â¬Å"are set off to some degree from other groups by displaying a unique set of culturalRead MoreEssay on Racism1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRacism Racism has often played a central role in conflicts between groups of people. Racism is the intentional or unintentional use of power to isolate, separate and exploit others as defined in the Webster dictionary. People generally respond to others differently based on what they know, which may include superficial characteristics often associated with race. This paper will express my opinion of how racism will effect America. I will base information from WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of Racism, readingRead MoreDiscussing Diversity And Diversity On Campus Through Your Article832 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiscussing diversity and inclusivity, specifically in the context of a university, is an extremely hard subject to broach. It can be sensitive for some, or even difficult to acknowledge for others. However, it is one of many subjects that, while difficult, is also equally as important to discuss. And when it is discussed in a manner that acknowledges its importance while being conscience of its sensitive nature, it can be truly beneficial and enlightening to the reader, which I believe youÃ¢â¬â¢ve accomplishedRead MoreThe Importance Of Language For Aboriginal People1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschild either one has. (Kinship, 2017 What is racism? Racism is a belief that a particular race or ethnicity is inferior or superior to others. Racism is any act that involves a person being treated unfairly or vilified because of their race or ethnicity. Racist behaviour is any act that is done as a result of or in pursuit of that belief. Racism presents itself in many different forms, but ultimately, the result is the same. For the victims of racism it can bring unwelcome feelings of intimidationRead MoreRacism Essay785 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRacism is a harsh word that includes both attitudes and actions. Racism is unequally treating others because they belong to a certain racial or ethnic group and thinking they are inferior to your ethnic group. Sociologists have defined racism as the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, or member of that group, as intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own group. It is more than an attitude; it is institutionalized in society. Racism is a silent disease that isRead MoreIn The United States It Is Estimated That By 2043, Nonwhite1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the United States it is estimated that by 2043, nonwhite racial and ethnic populations will compose more than 50 percent of all Americas, (Yan and Fitzpatrick, 2016). Areas like Centra l Ohio will see an increase in their diverse population. This means that more people who are of a diverse culture will have to use medical services. As of right now, there are many health disparities when it comes to the ethnic population. With a shift in demographics, the health sector in various central Ohio countiesRead MoreRacial Awareness And Racism And Stereotypes1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof people and cultures as well as counter racism and stereotypes? It all begins with the educators themselves having an open mind about different races, as they should act as models to the students. I believe that if teachers educate and enlighten their students about race and cultures, it would lower the chances of racism. Racial awareness is key in the early years of education as it allows students to develop more knowledge, therefore preventing racism and stereotypes. Instructors can model racialRead MoreCanada Is Not The Post Racist Utopia1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s seemi ngly pristine reputation is routinely glossed over with Ã¢â¬Å"polite fictions of tolerance, fairness, and generosityÃ¢â¬ (Fleras, 2017, p.6). That is, there is a discrepancy between the ideal Ã¢â¬â what Multiculturalism says it is doing in combating racism Ã¢â¬â and the real Ã¢â¬â what it is really doing in perpetuating a racialized and racist Canada (Fleras, 2014, p.246). In my essay, I will be unveiling three inconvenient truths and how they are masked. First, I will describe how Multiculturalism is merelyRead MoreMulticulturalism And Its Impact On Society1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to Takaki and Rattansi, Multiculturalism was a concept that played a vital role in how cultures assembled together in celebration of cultural diversity and pluralism to redress the inequalities all throughout the world. Through the readings, it is easy to identify that multiculturalism made a daily impact on people. The most critical social groups such as race, gender, religion, s exuality, nationality, and disability face the most constraint and enmity on social identity and opportunityRead MoreEssay On Ohr Program746 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswhere there is often a lack of resources, information, and ideas around anti-racism initiatives, it was expanded in 2016 to include four urban communities Ã¢â¬â Vancouver, Richmond, Surrey, and Burnaby. Despite BC celebrating and fostering diversity and multiculturalism through an array of initiatives, such as the Multiculturalism Policy and an annual multiculturalism week in November, people of colour continue to experience racism in various aspects of their lives. For example, newcomers in Burnaby often
Question: Discuss about the Advertisement Research Plan. Answer: A research team will be made that will comprise of marketing executive and three staffs from the research and development team that will conduct the market research, like surveys and interview. For analyzing the findings two staffs will be kept in the team. Thee time for the advertisement research plan has been kept $20,000. The duration for the activities for the research plan has been kept as six months. The first activity that will be carried out under this advertising research plan would be conducting a pretest for finding out the effectiveness of the marketing research campaign. The methods that would be used for conducting the pretest would be surveys, interviews and attitude test. The time taken for the pre-tests would be 3 months. The platform used for the advertisement campaign would be both in print media and the electronic media. Initially the advertising campaign will not be done in television because a lot of cost will be included in organizing a campaign in In the first month of the advertising research plan the survey will be conducted. For conducting the survey the potential buyers would be approached for taking their opinions. Since it is a very big marketing research the sample size for the survey would be 100. 100 respondents will be surveyed to know their opinions regarding the effectiveness of the advertising campaign. These customers, the respondents for this marketing campaign would be sports professionals, sports enthusiasts and young people who like wearing sports costumes. The respondents will be given communicated. After that, they will be given questionnaires that will be closed ended where the respondents will give their responses. The second pretest will be conducted in the second month of the period. The second pretest to examine the effectiveness of the advertisement campaign would be an interview of the total 10 respondents. The sample size of the respondents has been taken 10 because this campaign is a very big campaign. In this particular pretest, the interviews of some of the famous local coaches will be conducted to know their views regarding the sports clothes advertising campaign. In this campaign, they will be given questionnaires with open-ended questions, because this will be a detailed interview that will aim at knowing what influences the sports persons and enthusiast towards buying particular sports related goods. In the third month the third pre test activity will be conducted that will be attitude test of the customers. In the third activity, the advertisers find out the reaction of the audiences. The advertisements will be shown to the audience and the attitude towards the advertisement will be judged. If the attitude of the customers towards that particular campaign is positive it clearly means that the customers like the campaign and it can be launched. In the fourth month, the analysis of the test results will be done by the use of statistical tools like Chi-square test and Anova test. In the fifth month after the analysis of the result the advertising campaign will be launched and as per the preferences of the customers and the findings from the pre-test, the campaign will be launched.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Intuitionism Paper Intuitionism came about as a post-utilitarian perspective, and was largely developed as an ethical theory by Moore, Pritchard and Ross. As the name of the theory tells us it is concerned with humans intuition, Sidgwick came to the conclusion that ethics was not based on a unifying principle but rather on human intuition. Today, an intuitionist is thought of as someone who holds particular views about the way in which we come to find out what actions are right and which are wrong. Apparently, we group basic moral principles because of our intuition. Moral principles are capable of being true and known through a special faculty; moral intuition. W. D. Ross and Pritchard, claimed that they are facts about what is morally right and wrong and that our understanding of these is sufficient to deserve the title knowledge. We know that something is good by intuition: it is self-evident, good is something known directly by intuitionism1 G. E. Moore wrote that what is good, or morally good, cannot be defined by humans, just as yellow also cannot. We all know what yellow is in sensory terms but the only way to describe yellow is to use other colours which does not help someone who is colour blind, Good can be defined no more successfully than yellow. 2 However, we know instantly what yellow is, and we know instinctively what is morally good; they are both self-evident to us. Moore thought that what makes an action good or otherwise are the aims of the person in question when carrying out that action. Moore then went on to make a distinction between the aims and the consequences of an action: the aims are decided intuitively before the action and determine its moral nature. We will write a custom essay sample on What are the strengths and weaknesses of Intuitionism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on What are the strengths and weaknesses of Intuitionism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on What are the strengths and weaknesses of Intuitionism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The consequences are determined retrospectively, therefore not determining morality. Harold Arthur Pritchard developed Moores ideas further, he thought that moral obligation just is, and it can be perceived by our intuition. This means that moral obligation is something that a person could just know, it was not quite the same as feeling certain or failing to think or not questioning. The most evident strength of intuitionism is that the Judaeo-Christian tradition teaches that human beings are made in the likeness of God, therefore having his laws written in their hearts. This clearly supports the intuitive approach. The good person knows what is morally good because he/she is designed to know. Paramount to this idea is a) there is an absolute moral code b) that we have the ability to recognise it. Moreover, it is likely in practice that the majority of moral agents act at least partly from intuition on the majority of occasions when they have to make a moral decision. A weakness of the system is to assume that we can know A because of B. We cannot, in fact, say something is right because we intuit it to be that way. An intuitionist would say that humans only have their moral hunches and intuitions to guide them, so we have to rely on this by default. Unlike the scientific world in the world of morals, an intuitive moral decision is often held to be right because the person feels it to be so. This can be seen as a criticism of intuitionism because moral decisions making is more of an art form that an exact science. The apparent weaknesses of intuitionism could be summed up by saying when asking why should I be good? Because you just know you should. Emotivism, as its name suggests, is the moral theory based on peoples emotive responses to other people, events, situations, viewpoints and principles. Emotive response in this context is simply referring to a persons feelings about something. Thus, Emotivism is concerned principally, if not exclusively, with how people feel about something. This can be clearly seen in someone who says abortion is wrong, because according to Emotivism all they are doing is announcing how they feel about abortion. Even if they give a number of reasons why they feel this way, for example it goes against the sanctity of life. All the person is doing is finding other reasons which appeal to their emotions in order to support their initial position. When we remove all the so called rational reasons or arguments for doing A rather than B or believing in X rather than Y, then at root what we are left with is just a personal preference based on feelings of approval or disapproval. This is why the theory is commonly known as the Boo-Hurrah theory; when a statement is approved of the response is Hurrah and when a statement is disapproved of then the response is Boo. The weaknesses of the emotive theory of ethics are as follows; most people believe the need for a moral code. Most moral codes prescribe anti-social acts such as murder, stealing, cheating, deceiving, offending others. Integrity, honesty, loyalty, decency are also common moral requirements. If there is such a thing as a basic moral code, then Emotivism which is relative cannot be an exhaustive or complete system. Also, if everyone operates morally solely on their emotions then there should never be the problem of what to do, they would simply follow their strongest feeling on the issue. However, reality is different. For example; I may have huge sympathy for an elderly patient in pain, imploring me as her doctor to put her out of her misery. I have to force myself against my feelings, reasoning that her life is sacred, and I have no right to play God. Another problem with the relativism inherent in Emotivism is the difficulty of deciding where to draw the line of tolerance. If a Satanist is preaching hatred or murder as a good thing in his eyes should he be opposed vociferously, or in any other way, or not at all? After all, if he feels the emotion of hatred is the best basis of his moral code; from an emotive-relativist point of view I should do nothing unless he actually harms someone. Moreover, Alasdair McIntyre believes that Emotivism is bankrupt as an ethical theory because it lacks any moral absolutes. According to McIntyre the implications of Emotivism on society would be that social relations become manipulative because each person relates to everyone else morally in terms of their own individual emotions, not in terms of absolute moral values. This leads to people being a means to our own ends, instead of being ends in themselves.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
History of Poland as an Independent Nation essays The History Of Poland As An Independent Nation Poland is a land of beautiful countryside and rapidly growing cities. Along with the colorful landscape, Poland also has a very colorful history. The 1795 partition of Poland among Russia, Prussia, and Austria wiped the nation from the map. Poland was controlled by Russia, Austria, and Germany, but after World War I Poland was an independent nation. In 1906 Josef Pilsudski, the founder of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), set up organizations that attacked Tzarist officials and raided offices. In Galicia, the Austrian authorities turned a blind eye to the setting up of sporting clubs. They were followed by a Riflemens Union. In 1912, Pilsudski reorganized these on military lines, and by 1914 there were 12,000 men under arms. When World War I broke out, the Polish people were divided into the armies of Germany, Austria, and Russia. They were forced to fight among themselves in a war that was not theirs. Poles sympathized for France and Austria but did not like fighting with them on the Russians side. They also had little sympathy for the Germans. Pilsudki thought of Russia as the greater enemy and formed Polish Legions to fight independently for Austria. Some Galician Poles went to fight the Italians when they entered the war in 1915, preventing any clash of conscience. The Russians were driven out of most of Poland by 1915. The next year, Germany and Austria established a small Polish kingdom under their protection. Most of the fighting in the East took place in Poland. The Tzarist regime in Russia collapsed in 1917. The Poles main purpose for fighting with The Central Powers (Germany and Austria) disappeared. Germany and Austria promised Poland independence, but they were slow in carrying out their promise. Pilsudskis Legions were required to swear allegiance to Germany but refused to do it. Because of this, Pilsudskis wa...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Using the Comma in Spanish Most of the time, the comma in Spanish is used much like the comma in English. However, there are some differences, particularly in numbers and in comments that are inserted within sentences. Using Commas to Separate Items in a Series Unlike in English, where the Oxford commaÃ is optionallyÃ used before the final item in a series, a comma is not used before the final item of a series when it follows the conjunction e, o, ni, u or y. El libro explicaba de una forma concisa, sencilla y profunda la crisis financiera. The book explained the financial crisis in a concise, simple and profound way. (In English, a comma could optionally be added after simple.)Mezcle bien con las papas, los huevos y las remolachas. (Mix well with the potatoes, eggs, and beets.)Ã ¿Quieres tres, dos o una? (Do you want three, two, or one?) If an item in a series has a comma within it, you should use aÃ semicolon. Using Commas forÃ Explanatory Phrases and Apposition The rule on explanatory phrases is much the same as it is in English. If a phrase is used to explain what something is like, it is set off by commas. If it is used to define which something is being referred to, it is not. For example, in the sentence El coche que est en el garaje es rojo (The car that is in the garage is red), commas are not needed because the explanatory phrase (que est en el garaje/that is in the garage) is telling the reader which car is being discussed. But punctuated differently, the sentence el coche, que est en el garaje, es rojo (the car, which is in the garage, is red) uses the phrase not to tell the reader which car is being discussed but to describe where it is. An overlapping concept is that of apposition, in which a phrase or word (usually a noun) is immediately followed by another phrase or word that in the context means the same thing,Ã is similarly punctuated much as in English. El hombre, quien tiene hambre, quiere verte. (The man, who is hungry, wants to see you. The phrase quienÃ tiene hambre is being used to describe the man, not to define which man is being talked about.)El hombre en el cuarto quiere verte. (The man in the room wants to see you. No comma is needed because en el cuarto is being used to say which man is being talked about.)Amo a mi hermano, Roberto. I love my brother, Roberto. (I have one brother, and he is named Roberto.)Amo a mi hermano Roberto. I love my brother Roberto. (I have more than one brother, and I love Roberto.)Conozco a Julio Iglesias, cantante famoso. (I know Julio Iglesias, the famous singer.)Conozco al cantante famosoÃ Julio Iglesias. (I know the famous singer Julio Iglesias. The speaker is assuming that the listener doesnt know who Iglesias is.) Using Commas to Set Off Quotes When quotation marks are used, the comma goes outside the quotation marks, unlike in American English. Los familiares no comprendieron la ley, aclarÃ ³ el abogado. (The family members did not understand the law, the lawyer clarified.)Muchos no saben distinguir las dos cosas, dijo lvarez. (Many do not know how to distinguish the two things, Alvarez said.) Using Commas With Exclamations Commas can be used to set off exclamations that are inserted within a sentence. In English, the equivalent would normally be accomplished with long dashes. El nuevo presidente, Ã ¡no lo creo!, es oriundoÃ de Nueva York. The new president - I cant believe it! - is a native of New York. Using Commas Before Some Conjunctions A comma should precede conjunctions that mean except.Ã These words are excepto, salvo and menos: Nada hay que temer, excepto el miedo. (There is nothing to fear except fear.)RecibÃ felicitaciones de todos, salvo de mi jefe. (I was congratulated by everyone except for my boss.)Fueron aceptados por todas las autoridades, excepto el vice presidente.Ã (They were accepted by all the authorities, except the vice president.) Using Commas After Some Adverbs A comma should separate adverbs or adverbial phrases that affect the meaning of the entire sentence from the rest of the sentence.Ã Such words and phrases often come at the beginning of a sentence, although they can also be inserted. Por supuesto, no puedo comprenderlo. (Of course, I cant understand it.)Por lo contrario, la realidad argentina no difiere de la dominicana.Ã (To the contrary, the Argentine reality doesnt differ from the Dominican reality.)Naturalmente, gana mucho dinero. Naturally, he earns a lot of money. (Without the comma, the Spanish sentence would become the equivalent of He naturally earns a lot of money, so that naturalmente would describe just the word gana rather than the entire sentence.)Sin embargo, pienso que eres muy talentosa.Ã (Nevertheless, I think youre very talented.)El trfico de bebÃ ©s, desgraciadamente, es una realidad.Ã (The trafficking of babies, unfortunately, is a reality.) Using Commas in Compound Sentences It is not unusual to join two sentences into one, often with y in Spanish or and in English. A comma should also be used before the conjunction. Roma es el centro espiritual del catolicismo, y su centro ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad por UNESCO.Ã (Rome is the spiritual center of Catholicism, and its center has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.)Muchos lagos se forman por la obstrucciÃ ³n de valles debido a avalanchas, y tambiÃ ©n se puede formar un lago artificialmente por la construcciÃ ³n de una presa.Ã (Many lakes are formed by the obstruction of valleys due to avalanches, and a lake also can be formed artificially by the construction of a dam.) If a compound sentence is very short, the comma can be omitted: Te amo y la amo. (I love you and I love her.) Using the Decimal Comma In Spain, South America and parts of Central America, the comma and period are used in long numbers in the opposite way that they are in American English. Thus 123,456,789.01 in English becomesÃ 123.456.789,01Ã in most areas where Spanish is used. However, in Mexico, Puerto Rico and parts of Central America, the convention used in American English is followed. When Not to Use the Comma Perhaps one of the most common misuses of the comma in Spanish by English speakers is its use in salutations inÃ letters. In Spanish, the salutation should be followed by aÃ colon. Thus letters should begin, for example, with Querido Juan: rather than followingÃ JuanÃ with a comma. Also, as a general rule, as in English, a comma should not be used to separate the subject of a sentence from the main verb unless necessary to separate words of apposition or intervening phrases. Correct: El aÃ ±o pasado era muy difÃ cil. (The past year was very difficult.)Incorrect: El aÃ ±o pasado, era muy difÃ cil. (The past year, was very difficult.)
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The Future of Access Control - Essay Example This paper will examine the future of access control systems. Access control systems are being increasingly characterized by the convergence between the physical security of the facility and Information technology which is responsible for the security management of the facility which includes issues like authentication and logging. Access control methods can be broadly classified into three categories. Firstly, the visual recognition techniques which rely on a human to check the identity card issued to authorized personnel. This is the oldest form of access control and has several advantages like simplicity, ease of use, low implementation cost (though the cost is recurring in nature) and there is no requirement to always keep the password handy. There are disadvantages too like, the reliance on the human factor and the consequent scope for error; the identity cards can be easily duplicated and finally the low speed at which the checking takes place. Secondly we have the mechanical access control systems which can be characterized as the lock and key mechanism where the key acts as the physical identifier (Honey, Gerard 2005). This system has been used by humanity to secure physical spaces for a long time. The advantages are the simplicity of use and the low cost of implementation. However the disadvantages ar e that there is no way to prevent or regulate the duplication of an authorized key and there is no system to prevent or log unauthorized attempts. The third method of access control is the electrical access control systems which usually consist of an electromechanical lock which is operated by a set of valid keys. This method can be used imaginatively in various kinds of scenarios to provide differing levels of security. The advantages and the disadvantages of the mechanical access control systems are retained with the additional requirement of electrical cabling. The fourth method of access control is the electronic access control. This is proving to be an increasingly popular solution due to several factors. This method represents a convergence of electronics, Information Technology and physical access control. They can be broadly sub divided into three sub categories, keyboard based, smart based and biometrics based (Horrowitz,P and W. Hill 1992). The merits and demerits of each of these categories will be discussed in detail later in this paper. However all these electronic access control systems have the following advantages like a high level of security, increased flexibility in deployment resulting from a wide possibility for application, operation and small size. They also have some generic drawbacks like enhanced cost of deployment and the requirement of specialized knowledge for installation. Access control is about the continuing race between the increasingly complex access control systems and the people who are trying to gain unauthorized access. This demands a continually evolving technology. This paper will examine the future trends of access control systems and the various technologies associated with them. Types of Barriers and Design of Systems There are several types of barriers with each barrier having its own advantages and disadvantages. These advantages and di